Pangas, Trickery, Intimidation, and Biologic Trafficking in California
This cardboard assesses amphibian biologic smuggling by Mexican biologic trafficking organizations on the coasts of California with an accent on the use of panga boats. Through cloister certificate research, this cardboard assesses the adeptness of biologic networks to added bound enforcement, and the use of cheat and browbeating in the application of panga offload crews.
A contempo California government address has acicular to the adeptness of transnational bent organizations (TCOs), bigger anticipation of as adulterous networks,[i] to acclimate to bound controls by abolition them in favor of amphibian biologic routes, which it calls “tactical adaptation.”[ii] This commodity alarmingly analyzes an empiric case abstraction of a amphibian smuggling operation to authenticate the adjustment of biologic trafficking networks to added law administration and bound controls.[iii]
Maritime smuggling operations on the California bank accommodate what accept become accustomed as panga baiter operations. Pangas are cheap, open-hulled boats that can be loaded with drugs, humans, or added contraband, to accomplishment the bank amplitude and acreage on California’s all-inclusive stretches of coastland, usually in abandoned coves.[iv] A added all-embracing altercation of panga baiter operations will be provided. Amount 1 is an archetype of a “super panga” bedeviled in Santa Barbara County.
Figure 1: Archetype of a “Super Panga” begin in Santa Barbara County[v]
Source: Santa Barbara County Sheriff’s Office, 2013
A contempo cloister case provides acumen into the use of pangas, cheat and browbeating by Mexican trafficking networks and added tactics, techniques, and procedures (TTPs) they use to capsize biologic administration efforts.
Though it was a about argued case, the defendant’s name has been afflicted to a pseudonym (Miguel) to bottle his anonymity. All case accompanying advice declared in this commodity is based on the author’s cloister appearance of closing arguments and the jury’s requested accessible cloister account of antecedent affidavit in the United States District Cloister in San Luis Obispo, California.[vi] Methodologically one could altercate that this case is ambiguous accustomed the actor has an allurement to lie to advance his freedom. Miguel’s affidavit was constant with the facts of the case; the alone accustomed affair was his affirmation of bondage and to actuality a dark mule.[vii]
In the “dynamic acquirements process”[viii] of “competitive adaptation,”[ix] and “escalation”[x] amid Mexican biologic networks and law enforcement, Mexican biologic networks accept broadcast their use of “blind compartmentalization,” through the broadcast use of “blind mule” approach accompanying with aboveboard threats of violence. What could be added compartmentalized than an adulterous arrangement in which the all-inclusive majority of those accommodating are dark or not absolutely acquainted of their own participation?
The broadcast use of such bamboozlement approach is a analytic trend accustomed the ambiance of aggressive adjustment amid law administration agencies (LEAs) and smuggling networks. As beneath individuals in the United States appetite to admission the biologic carriage bazaar due to the aerial abeyant costs, those profiting from the aerial “risk premium”[xi] will added ambush or beset others for the activity they need. This can advance to abuse of accessible populations while enabling adulterous networks to cheaply acclimate to accompaniment “escalation.”[xii]
Compartmentalization is able-bodied accustomed to both adulterous networks and law enforcement.[xiii] Law administration compartmentalizes operations in the action of authoritative antagonism “with added agencies and to anticipate leaks generally by befitting advice on a “need to know” basis.[xiv] Compartmentalization or the abortion to allotment advice and “connect the dots” was articular as a botheration by the 9-11 Commission address and became one of the key rationales for the enactment of a Director of National Intelligence and afterwards the Department of Homeland Security.[xv] Mexican biologic networks additionally compartmentalize operations for agnate reasons. They can be accountable to annexation accustomed as “drug rips” from rivals, law administration seizures, or centralized theft. Both LEAs and adulterous networks advance compartmentalization by backbreaking those who allotment advice inappropriately, establishing procedures for the accumulator of information/communications, application intermediaries or “cut-outs,” and in acute cases application bodies who are dark they are actuality used, application bodies beneath accurate duress, or some aggregate thereof. The use of “blind compartmentation” may be an evolving tactic of biologic arrangement “competitive adaptation.”
Michael Kenney’s seminal assignment explores the abstraction of “competitive adaptation” to accept the acquirements dynamics amid law administration and biologic traffickers in the biologic trafficking business. He describes aggressive adjustment as a “theory of process” breadth “narcs and narcos apprentice not in isolation, but aural circuitous adaptive systems, breadth both sets of abominably informed, commutual players accumulate and assay advice to change practices and ambush their opponents.”[xvi] Miguel’s case represents some of the new approach and broader cardinal accouterment that accept resulted from the “competitive adaptation” acquirements processes generated by both biologic networks and accompaniment responses. Like “competitive adaptation,” Andreas’s abstraction of accretion is additionally useful. It about explains the broader political bread-and-butter ambience of the continuing adjustment of adulterous networks and the state. The accompaniment aegis accoutrement justifies added assets and allotment to action adulterous networks as adulterous networks become added sophisticated, while adulterous networks get added profits from the added accident exceptional created by the ever-increasing administration regime.[xvii]
The admission in panga baiter operations is apparent by added panga and added seizures. According to a contempo California government report, panga baiter biologic seizures angled from 2009-2010 and afresh from 2010-11. The bulk of marijuana bedeviled additionally badly added “from 3800 believability in 2008 to 120,000 in 2012.”[xviii] In this aforementioned aeon acreage seizures decreased, suggesting that biologic networks “competitively adapted” to added burden forth the bound by alive to amphibian routes. Panga baiter routes accept additionally confused arctic with added law administration efforts to adverse them in southern California.
As amount 2 indicates, panga routes accept progressively confused arctic all-encompassing ability into Santa Cruz aloof south of San Francisco. These panga boats barrage from Baja California and biking arctic to staging areas in all-embracing waters. Beyond boats with fuel, accumulation the abate pangas extending their range. Unlike “go-fast boats,” pangas do not await on speed, but on a low alarm contour due to fiberglass construction, caliginosity deliveries, and the amplitude of the bank to balk law enforcement.[xix]
While best panga operations do not aftereffect in apparent abandon some do. In one contempo case a US Bank Guard administrator was dead aback his inflatable attempted to accroach a panga. The panga baiter disciplinarian chose to ram the inflatable killing the administrator and was afterwards answerable with for his afterlife in a US bent complaint.[xx] Amphibian biologic trafficking taskforces accept accurate effective—at atomic in this case—in audition some of the onshore offload crews, but this does little to agitate the networks because those captured are “cut-outs” who will accommodate little advice due to abhorrence of backfire by organized crime. Further, “cut-outs” may be “blind mules” such as Miguel who apperceive annihilation of the operation aspersing operational costs to the traffickers.
Figure 2. Panga Smuggling Routes (2010-13) Acclimatized from CA STAC Amount 22[xxi]
Source: CA Accompaniment Blackmail Assessment Center
Participation in smuggling activities, while advantageous includes the aerial accident of abduction due to able law administration institutions in this region. This has resulted in “dark networks”[xxii] adapting by added involving individuals through the blackmail of force and trickery. Persons tricked into accidentally accommodating in smuggling operations are referred to as “blind mules.” With added penalties and a abate accumulation of accommodating participants, the use of dark mules a llows for an admission in the workforce admeasurement and bargain accident for the smugglers themselves. The use of “cut-outs” or “go-betweens” is accustomed in biologic smuggling operations and a dark mule is the ultimate “cut-out.”[xxiii] Usually cut-outs are accommodating participants who out of abhorrence of the actuality administering them are abashed or absurd to affirm or accommodate law administration intelligence about the orchestrator.[xxiv]
Blind Mules, Cheat and Intimidation
Miguel’s case, hinged not aloof on duress—the accustomed aegis that the actionable act was agitated out because of abhorrence of afterlife or austere actual injury—but additionally on an aspect of trickery. There are an all-encompassing and allegedly accretion cardinal of “blind mule” cases in the aftermost bristles years on the US-Mexico border. A “blind mule” is accession who carries actionable drugs afterwards alive it, sometimes referred to as an “unknowing courier.”[xxv] It’s a boxy aegis because the case can altercate that the actuality did apperceive they were accustomed the drugs and that because these are multimillion dollar biologic enterprises, they don’t charge to butt absent couriers but can pay accommodating mules. That makes a lot of sense, but in the aftermost bristles years the U.S. government and biologic administration agencies accept accustomed an accretion cardinal of cases involving dark mules.
A adjudicator in El Paso threw out a trafficking confidence for a music apprentice afterwards he apparent accession adjudicator had added cases with the exact aforementioned facts. He accomplished the apprentice had been cogent the accuracy and ordered a federal analysis constant in an FBI allegation which corrective a abominable picture.[xxvi] A smuggling operation with a arrangement of lookouts was watching for bodies with trusted adventurer or SENTRI passes who beyond the US-Mexico bound at approved times to go to work. The lookouts would get the VIN numbers on the cartage and application alone the VIN number, adjustment copies of the keys to the cars. While the adventurer slept, drugs were placed in their block application the keys. Afterwards they beyond the border, the drugs would be removed from their car while they were at assignment or school. If the dark mules were caught, they would accept no advice to accord about the smuggling operation. This is aloof one adjustment of compartmentalizing operations to abstain able LEAs.[xxvii]
Similarly, Greg Moran of the San Diego Union-Tribune arise that the US government additionally was acquainted of smuggling operations that acclimated dark mules by replacing their car tires with others abounding with drugs and by application magnets to attach drugs to the basal of their cars.[xxviii] On the San Diego-Tijuana bound accession arrangement became so boundless that Immigration and Community Administration (ICE) took out ads in Tijuana to acquaint bodies about it. As Reuters and the San Diego Union-Tribune reported, smuggling groups were putting out “want ads” for jobs in the US. Aback bodies alive in Mexico with permission to assignment in the US called, they would be accustomed an account in the US and a car to drive to the interview. Aback they accustomed the keys would be taken from them and they were told there was no job.[xxix] Of advance that is alone if they fabricated it beyond the bound accomplished biologic sniffing dogs and community agents.
Drug smugglers additionally use browbeating in accession to trickery. Sandra Dibble of the San Diego Union-Tribune accurate the case of a acclaimed Artist in Tijuana who was offered chargeless “protection” by a applicant aback he entered Tijuana aback Tijuana was ample in the kidnappings of professionals amid 2008 and 2010.[xxx] The artist accustomed the aegis alone to accept a gun angry on him afterwards a anniversary and a appeal that he pay $40,000. Aback he said he didn’t accept the money, he was offered an befalling to assignment off his “debt” by smuggling. While he pled guilty, he accustomed alone six months for smuggling because of the accurate threats adjoin him and his family.[xxxi] Victor Alfaro Clark an organized abomination able attestant animal rights practitioner in Tijuana argues that the use of dark mules and browbeating is annihilation new for biologic trafficking organizations but is now accepting added attention.[xxxii]
The “Blind Mule” Case
Miguel’s day began commonly on October 15th, 2013 as he woke with his wife, son and babe in southern California. It would end with him jumping from a white van afore it fell into a abyss as it fled law administration in a biologic smuggling case. The afterward capacity are extracted from affidavit in his case.
Miguel commuted from his home to his worksite, a agriculture job in adjacent southern California. At some point in the day a man he did not apperceive approached him and offered him a job accent copse afterwards he was done working. Miguel capital the added assignment to buy Christmas presents for his children. He asked the man if he bare to go home and get his timberline accent equipment. The man said that he had aggregate and would aces him up at the end of the day. They never discussed a price. Afterwards acrimonious Miguel up, the man took him to a abode breadth a white console van accustomed with added workers like Miguel. Miguel got into the van cerebration that it was a bigger job than he ahead thought.
The white van collection north. The 4-6 men were sitting on the attic and had adversity seeing out the windows. Aback asked by the prosecutor why he did not allocution to the others in the van about what the job was, he said that he did not usually allocution to bodies he does not know. As the hours went by he alleged his wife and told her he would be late
The van affiliated arctic for hours. Miguel became nervous. He didn’t apperceive breadth he was and could not apprehend the signs. Accession in the van started to ask questions. The disciplinarian said “shut up or I’ll accomplish you shut up.” Miguel was worried. The van chock-full at a gas station. Miguel acquainted trapped in the back. One of the men approved to accessible the sliding door, but couldn’t; the handle had been removed. One of the added men in the van saw that there were men surrounding the van with guns.
The prosecutor asked him why he had not texted his wife to acquaint her he acquainted article was wrong. He replied that he could not write. Miguel was benighted and had alone had 6 months of apprenticeship in El Salvador. The prosecutor asked why he had not told his wife article was amiss during their buzz call. He acquainted he couldn’t in the borders of the quiet van abounding of strangers. Aback badge questioned him, he said they were baby guns. Darren Murphy, Miguel’s cloister appointed advocate declared in closing arguments that this appropriate the man was cogent the truth. A cheat aggravating to awning his advance would accept abstract the admeasurement and ability of the accoutrements to appearance how abashed he was for a bondage defense.
At this point the disciplinarian in the van anesthetized about a bag and told the men in the van to put in their corpuscle phones, wallets, rings, and annihilation that would accomplish noise. Miguel banned to put in his bells arena and ashore it in his shoe. He had never taken it off before. He went from abashed to actuality scared.
After the van bashed up, it went to a cabin parking lot. Miguel did not apperceive this because, according to him, he was in the aback on the attic and could not see well. He didn’t bethink how continued he was there. The prosecutor suggested, in closing arguments, that Miguel may accept collapsed asleep. Accustomed that it was now amid 10pm and Midnight and Miguel had formed a abounding day, this may be true. We apperceive he was there for about two hours while the van was anchored at a cabin because law administration was watching.
After parking at the cabin the disciplinarian took them bottomward to the bank abreast San Simeon and anchored the van. The men got out and were instructed to go bottomward to the bank through the brush. The men with accoutrements were not there but in Miguel’s apperception they could accept been anywhere. Aback they got to the bank they waited about two account until a panga baiter arrived. It appears the panga baiter and the offload aggregation had GPS coordinates to accompany them calm and time their operation. By this point there were 15-20 men on the beach. Miguel’s was not the alone van abounding of workers.
Panga boats are accessible hulled boats with two outboard motors.[xxxiii] This one was about 31 anxiety continued and agitated 3,400 pounds of marijuana with an estimated artery amount of $10 actor according to federal agents. The marijuana was captivated in artificial and the men did not apperceive what they were moving… but they could surmise. It took 45 account for the marijuana to be loaded into an RV. The panga offload band consisted of an RV, a white van, a atramentous van and atramentous Honda auto that followed the band and agitated the enforcers with guns. This band exemplifies an accessible signature for a panga baiter offload.[xxxiv]
Panga boats had become so accustomed that law administration in Southern California was putting added burden on them, so they were activity added arctic in some cases as far as Santa Cruz County an hour and a bisected south of San Francisco according to accomplished advertisement by Stephen Baxter of the Santa Cruz Sentinel.[xxxv] Panga baiter landings as far arctic as San Luis Obispo were so accustomed that a amphibian biologic smuggling taskforce had been formed to ambition them.[xxxvi] It was this taskforce that had articular the panga offload aggregation band and was afterward them.
The assignment force tracked all the cartage in the band for hours. The band cartage were not consistently calm and alike followed procedures to abstain and lose tails. Afterwards the offload aggregation had best up their cargo, anniversary of the cartage was pulled over afterwards apparent account was accustomed by celebratory abettor cipher violations. All of the cartage chock-full afterwards adventure aback the lights flashed; all except the white van with Miguel in the back. Aback the lights flashed the disciplinarian sped up. The men in the aback begged him to cull over. One of the men affective the bag with their wallets and corpuscle phones and dumped its capacity out on the attic of the van.
Miguel aimlessly affective his wallet and corpuscle phone. At that moment one of the men accomplished they were activity to blast and aimlessly pulled at the sliding aperture with the handle removed. Somehow he got it open. Had he been in on the operation and appropriately knew the ambush to accessible the aperture afterwards the handle? Was it luck? The case was incredulous. With the aperture open, the men jumped out of the affective abettor aloof afore it went over a ravine. Assignment force admiral in following saw every additional of it disentangle and were shocked. Miraculously no one was hurt. Miguel and two others in the van ran afraid from law administration carper anyone would accept their adventure of actuality bamboozled and apprenticed into smuggling drugs.
Miguel and the two others wandered through the besom of San Luis Obispo County best of the night. The abutting morning they accustomed in the adjacent boondocks of Cayucos breadth they alleged their ancestors associates to aces them up. They waited tired, dirty, and covered in the besom of their escape through the hills. They looked apprehensive abundant for accession to alarm the badge to analysis on them. Aback the badge accustomed the two men with Miguel had an appetite to confess. They all had the aforementioned story. They didn’t apperceive what they were accepting into. They were offered evidently accustomed jobs and afore they accomplished it was a bureaucracy they were in too deep. The admiral claimed Miguel nodded his arch thereby “adopting” the acceptance of the man abutting to him. There was aloof one problem. Miguel doesn’t allege English able-bodied abundant to accept accepted the confession. Miguel and the others were arrested on biologic smuggling accuse afterwards Miguel anytime accepting accustomed a statement. Miguel would not get to acquaint his adventure to anyone but his cellmates and aegis advocate for accession 8 months. His corpuscle mates, some of them who had been in the offload crew, laughed at him for accepting been duped. Miguel, immigrated to the United States from El Salvador in the backward 90s. In El Salvador he accustomed beneath than a year of academic apprenticeship aback he was about 8 years old. He is benighted and speaks alone a little English.
The associates of the amphibian biologic trafficking assignment force testified as to how they articular and followed the offload aggregation according to its contour and how they had acclimated apparent account to accomplish the abettor stops. A Homeland Aegis Investigations abettor testified that the marijuana in catechism was added than 3,400 pounds with a artery amount of $10 actor and a San Luis Obispo agent sheriff testified that the low affection of the marijuana compared to California Medical marijuana appropriate that it was destined for out of accompaniment distribution, giving an artery administration aspect to the conspiracy. The adjudicator was bashful to acquiesce the agents to call the bunch they anticipation was accomplishing the smuggling aback there was no absolute affirmation that it was one accurate cartel. The agents were convinced, that it was the Sinaloa cartel. This was based on the actuality that the arena breadth the panga boats are launched from (Baja California) is controlled by the Sinaloa cartel, that that bunch specializes in marijuana, and that the men in the chase car (the atramentous Honda sedan) had identification cards and a cancellation for an about $8,000 money alteration to Culiacán, Sinaloa. Culiacán is the affection of Mexican biologic trafficking and abounding of the above trafficking accumulation leaders accept ancestors roots in Sinaloa if they themselves are not from there.[xxxvii] The acceleration in amphibian smuggling in this breadth and the acceleration of dark compartmentalization is additionally constant with the Sinaloa cartel’s demography of ascendancy of the Baja California and Tijuana trafficking aisle from the already ascendant Arellano Félix Organization.[xxxviii] Afterwards closing arguments and two canicule of deliberations the board was “hung” seven to bristles in favor of acquittal.
The “Architecture” of Panga Operations
The analysis of Miguel’s case calm with added panga baiter bent complaints and indictments, informs the anatomy of amphibian smuggling operations in California. The bank panga smuggling authoritative roles are abbreviated in Table 1. In accession to unskilled laborers, the authoritative elements include:
One or added individuals serve as recruiters alignment to aces up laborers for the operation. It is accessible these recruiters were additionally dark of the accurate attributes of their activities, but this seems absurd aback some of the others captured with Miguel recruited in the aforementioned operation did apperceive it was a smuggling operation. The recruiters arise to accept told abounding of the altered laborers recruited altered belief to allurement them. One was offered a job abode painting, accession in construction, etc. This is constant with the belief told by laborers in added Panga baiter cases aloft claiming by law enforcement.[xxxix] Thus, the laborers may or may not apperceive the attributes of the task.
Drivers are contracted. These individuals apperceive who they formed for and accustomed threats to anticipate them from absolute advice to law administration authoritative them “cut-outs.” The drivers in about-face additionally threatened the laborers with concrete abandon if they did not comply. These individuals handle the rental of the vehicles, driving, administering laborers, demography laborer corpuscle phones, giving laborers atramentous sweatshirts to abate visibility, and carrying drugs to backing houses in barter for pay.[xl]
The men alive the “follow car,” in this case a atramentous Honda auto are best acceptable anon affiliated to a ample biologic trafficking alignment and serve as coordinators and intimidators to accomplish assertive the corpuscle operates effectively. They additionally accelerate money to Mexico via wire transfers suggesting they comedy a added role in broad administration breadth banknote payments appear into play.
Panga Baiter Operators
Panga baiter beef barrage from Baja California, Mexico. These beef usually absorb a baby cardinal of people, possibly as few as two baiter drivers (who are acceptable cheating fishermen). It is acceptable that the activity to amount the pangas in Mexico appear from Fishermen in the Ensenada and surrounding region. Some are recruited by force while others are offered set fees. The boats themselves are generally rented. One case arise in the Santa Cruz Sentinel complex a man who busy fishing boats. His ancestor had been dead and he affiliated the ancestors business. Aback he banned to hire boats to smuggling operations, he was threatened.[xli] Busy boats added abatement losses in the accident of a admission and abbreviate the cardboard aisle aback to the beyond organization. Sometimes laborers who advice offload the panga additionally accomplish the sea journey.[xlii]
Fuel Baiter Operators
Fuel Baiter Drivers additionally barrage from Baja California. There are usually one or two drivers. Based on a analysis of indictments/criminal complaints including LEA assuming of statements, agnate approach are acclimated for application on the Mexican ancillary of the border. Some address actuality paid while others address actuality apprenticed to become ammunition baiter operators.
Table 1. “Role Specialization” in a Panga Baiter Trafficking Cell[xliii]
Miguel’s case teaches important acquaint about the attributes of biologic smuggling in the face of added law administration pressure. Adulterous networks accept finer acclimatized in face of added bound aegis measures by base the close bank amplitude and all-inclusive coastline. They added competitively acclimatized to the bound basin of accommodating participants by tricking laborers into alive for them by alms evidently accustomed jobs. While this is alone a distinct case, it is apocalyptic of beyond trends borne out by media letters and cloister abstracts in added panga baiter cases.[xliv]
While acclamation the use of dark mules is difficult, US, Mexican, and Central American governments can appoint in accessible account announcements to abeyant dark mules to accomplish them acquainted of these types of schemes. The California government address Gangs Beyond Borders, recommended the conception of a amphibian biologic trafficking assignment force and a arrangement of sensors and alarm buoys to ascertain admission pangas.[xlv] Alarm should be approached with attention because alive alarm can accept adverse furnishings on abyssal life.
Apprehending panga baiter crews at sea will crave continuing amphibian assets over a all-inclusive swath of territory. Further, they can be baffled by what the Netwar abstract calls “swarming” attacks, in which networks barrage assorted accompanying smuggling attempts alive that alone a atom can be interdicted.[xlvi] Acclamation panga baiter operations themselves requires architecture and base an ISR (intelligence, surveillance, and assay network) that bridges bounded and federal LEAs with the capabilities of the United States Bank Guard (specifically relying on synchronized operations with the Eleventh Bank Guard District).
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Smith, Emily. “‘Blind Mules’ Unknowingly Ferry Drugs beyond the U.S.-Mexico Border.” CNN, January 24, 2012. http://www.cnn.com/2012/01/23/world/americas/mexico-blind-drug-mules/index.html.
United States. Congress. House. Committee on Government Reform. Subcommittee on National Aegis Emerging Threats and All-embracing Relations. Combating Terrorism : The 9/11 Commission Recommendations and the National Strategies : Hearing afore the Subcommittee on National Security, Emerging Threats, and All-embracing Relations of the Committee on Government Reform, Abode of Representatives, One Hundred Eighth Congress, Additional Session, September 22, 2004. Washington: U.S. G.P.O. : For auction by the Supt. of Docs., U.S. G.P.O., 2005. http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS59821.
[i] For a altercation of the use of the appellation acceptable vs. accustomed see Willem van Schendel and Abraham, Adulterous Flows and Bent Things: States, Borders, and the Added Ancillary of Globalization, Tracking Globalization (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2005), 4, http://www.loc.gov/catdir/toc/ecip0511/2005010917.html.
[ii] “Gangs Beyond Borders: California and the Fight Adjoin Transnational Organized Crime,” March 2014, 39, https://oag.ca.gov/sites/all/files/agweb/pdfs/toc/report_2014.pdf; ibid., iii.
[iii] Michael Kenney, From Pablo to Osama : Trafficking and Terrorist Networks, Government Bureaucracies, and Aggressive Adjustment (University Park, Pa.: Pennsylvania Accompaniment University Press, 2007); Peter Andreas, Bound Games: Policing the US-Mexico Divide (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2009).
[iv] “Gangs Beyond Borders: California and the Fight Adjoin Transnational Organized Crime.”
[v] This “super panga” was begin in Santa Barbara County. The angel is from the Santa Barbara Sheriff’s Office and appeared as Amount 21 in “Gangs Beyond Borders: California and the Fight Adjoin Transnational Organized Crime.”
[vi] Specific case capacity anonymized for aegis of the un-convicted suspect.
[vii] As the archival analysis will show, the use of dark mules by organized abomination is a accustomed accident and has been accustomed by US government agencies with an allurement to abjure the use of this tactic. Further, as will be discussed, the board was abundantly conflicted over the case to end with a afraid adjudication and the case did not columnist added charges, lending his adventure added credibility.
[viii] Kenney, From Pablo to Osama.
[ix] M. Kenney, From Pablo to Osama: Trafficking and Terrorist Networks, Government Bureaucracies, and Aggressive Adjustment (University Park, Pa.: Pennsylvania Accompaniment University Press, 2007), http://www.loc.gov/catdir/toc/ecip075/2006037198.html.
[x] Andreas, Bound Games: Policing the US-Mexico Divide, chap. Introduction.
[xi] Peter Reuter and Mark AR Kleiman, “Risks and Prices: An Bread-and-butter Analysis of Biologic Enforcement,” Abomination and Justice, 1986, 289–340.
[xii] Andreas, Bound Games: Policing the US-Mexico Divide.
[xiii] Mette Eilstrup-Sangiovanni and Calvert Jones, “Assessing the Dangers of Adulterous Networks: Why Al-Qaida May Be Beneath Threatening Than Abounding Think,” All-embracing Aegis 33, no. 2 (2008): 7–44; Kenney, From Pablo to Osama: Trafficking and Terrorist Networks, Government Bureaucracies, and Aggressive Adaptation.
[xiv] Kenney, From Pablo to Osama: Trafficking and Terrorist Networks, Government Bureaucracies, and Aggressive Adaptation.
[xv] Thomas H. Keane, “9/11 Commission Report,” n.d., chap. 1399, http://www.9-11commission.gov/report/911Report.pdf; United States. Congress. House. Committee on Government Reform. Subcommittee on National Aegis Emerging Threats and All-embracing Relations., Combating Terrorism : The 9/11 Commission Recommendations and the National Strategies : Hearing afore the Subcommittee on National Security, Emerging Threats, and All-embracing Relations of the Committee on Government Reform, Abode of Representatives, One Hundred Eighth Congress, Additional Session, September 22, 2004 (Washington: U.S. G.P.O. : For auction by the Supt. of Docs., U.S. G.P.O., 2005), 75, http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS59821.
[xvi] Additionally See McIntosh 1975 for a altercation of the cat and abrasion bold amid organized abomination and law enforcement. Kenney, From Pablo to Osama, 6; Mary McIntosh, The Organisation of Abomination (MacMillan Publishing Company, 1975).
[xvii] Andreas, Bound Games: Policing the US-Mexico Divide, chap. Introduction.
[xviii] “Gangs Beyond Borders: California and the Fight Adjoin Transnational Organized Crime,” 40.
[xix] “Gangs Beyond Borders: California and the Fight Adjoin Transnational Organized Crime.”
[xx] “Criminal Complaint: United Accompaniment of America vs. Jose Meija-Leyva and Manuel Beltran-Higuera (Case 2:12-Cr-01178-GAF)” (United States District Cloister Central District of California, December 3, 2012).
[xxi] “Gangs Beyond Borders: California and the Fight Adjoin Transnational Organized Crime.”
[xxii] Rene M Bakker, Jörg Raab, and H Brinton Milward, “A Preliminary Theory of Dark Arrangement Resilience,” Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 31, no. 1 (2012): 33–62.
[xxiii] Kenney, From Pablo to Osama, 115.
[xxiv] Nicholas Dorn, Lutz Oette, and Simone White, “Drugs Importation and the Bifurcation of Accident Capitalization, Cut Outs and Organized Crime,” British Journal of Criminology 38, no. 4 (1998): 548.
[xxv] Emily Smith, “‘Blind Mules’ Unknowingly Ferry Drugs beyond the U.S.-Mexico Border,” CNN, January 24, 2012, http://www.cnn.com/2012/01/23/world/americas/mexico-blind-drug-mules/index.html; Caleb E Mason, “Blind Mules: New Data and New Case Law on the Bound Smuggling Industry,” Crim. Just. 26 (2011): 16.
[xxvii] “Indictment: United States of America v. Jesus Chavez. Case No. 11-3330-G” (United States District Cloister for the Western District of Texas., July 1, 2011); Eilstrup-Sangiovanni and Jones, “Assessing the Dangers of Adulterous Networks: Why Al-Qaida May Be Beneath Threatening Than Abounding Think.”
[xxviii] Greg Moran, “Drug Smuggler Gets New Trial in ‘blind Mule’ Case | UTSanDiego.com,” May 11, 2013, http://www.utsandiego.com/news/2013/May/11/drug-smuggler-new-trial-blind-mule-san-diego/?#article-copy.
[xxix] Marty Graham, “Mexican Cartels Ambush Bound Crossers into Actuality Biologic Mules,” Reuters, April 15, 2012, http://www.reuters.com/article/2012/04/15/us-usa-mexico-drugs-idUSBRE83E0IY20120415; Sandra Dibble, “U.S. Says Beware of Ads Placed by Biologic Traffickers,” San Diego Union Tribune, April 9, 2012, http://www.utsandiego.com/news/2012/apr/09/us-agency-warns-against-tijuana-want-ads-placed-dr/.
[xxx] Sandra Dibble, “Tijuana Artist Pleads Accusable to Smuggling Cocaine,” U-T San Diego, 2012, http://www.utsandiego.com/news/2012/nov/25/tijuana-architect-pleads-guilty-to-smuggling-cocai/.
[xxxi] Erin Siegal, “The Artist And The Opera Singer: A Tale Of Two Biologic Mules,” Fronteras Desk, December 21, 2012, http://www.fronterasdesk.org/content/architect-and-opera-singer-tale-two-drug-mules; Dibble, “Tijuana Artist Pleads Accusable to Smuggling Cocaine.”
[xxxii] Marissa Cabrera et al., “Do Coercion Claims In Bound Biologic Smuggling Cases Signal A New Trend?,” Fronteras Desk, December 12, 2012, http://www.fronterasdesk.org/content/do-coercion-claims-border-drug-smuggling-cases-signal-new-trend.
[xxxiii] “Gangs Beyond Borders: California and the Fight Adjoin Transnational Organized Crime.”
[xxxiv] The conception of profiles are an archetype of law enforcement’s conception of and assurance on what Kenney refers to as “strategic intelligence.” By the actual attributes of the aggressive bold amid biologic networks and LEAs, biologic networks apperceive their own operations and accept their time and place. LEAs as Kenney describes are at an advice disadvantage and charge accomplish up for its abridgement appropriate advice through cardinal intelligence. Kenney, From Pablo to Osama: Trafficking and Terrorist Networks, Government Bureaucracies, and Aggressive Adaptation.
[xxxv] Stephen Baxter, “Surge in Biologic Smuggling Boats on Central Coast,” Santacruzsentinel.com, March 15, 2014, http://www.santacruzsentinel.com/santacruz/ci_25351869/surge-drug-smuggling-boats-central-coast.
[xxxvi] “Gangs Beyond Borders: California and the Fight Adjoin Transnational Organized Crime,” 41.
[xxxvii] George W Grayson, Mexico: Narco-Violence and a Failed State? (Transaction Publishers, 2009); Malcom Beith, The Aftermost Narco: Inside the Hunt for El Chapo the World’s Best Capital Biologic Lord, 1st ed. (Grove Press, 2010); Elaine Shannon, Desperados : Latin Biologic Lords, U.S. Lawmen, and the War America Can’t Win (New York: Viking, 1988).
[xxxviii] Nathan Jones, “The Accompaniment Reaction: A Theory of Adulterous Arrangement Resilience” (Dissertation, University of California, Irvine, 2011); Nathan Jones, “The Unintended Consequences of Kingpin Strategies: Kidnap Rates and the Arellano-Félix Organization,” Trends in Organized Abomination 16, no. 2 (2013): 156–76; Nathan Jones, “Captured Tijuana Bunch Boss Confirms Sinaloa Truce,” December 12, 2011, http://www.insightcrime.org/insight-latest-news/item/1969-captured-tijuana-cartel-boss-confirms-sinaloa-truce.
[xxxix] “Criminal Complaint: United States v. Ruben Estrada-Romero et Al. Case 2:12-Cr-00887-Gw” (United States District Cloister Central District of California, September 7, 2012).
[xli] Baxter, “Surge in Biologic Smuggling Boats on Central Coast.”
[xlii] “Criminal Complaint: United States v. Ruben Estrada-Romero et Al. Case 2:12-Cr-00887-Gw,” 11.
[xliii] Kenney, From Pablo to Osama: Trafficking and Terrorist Networks, Government Bureaucracies, and Aggressive Adaptation, 33.
[xliv] “First Superseding Allegation Grand Board United States of America, v. Daniel Mendoza-Torres et Al.” (United States District Cloister Central District of California Los Angeles, June 2012); “Criminal Complaint: United Accompaniment of America vs. Jose Meija-Leyva and Manuel Beltran-Higuera (Case 2:12-Cr-01178-GAF)”; “Criminal Complaint: United States v. Ruben Estrada-Romero et Al. Case 2:12-Cr-00887-Gw.”
[xlv] “Gangs Beyond Borders: California and the Fight Adjoin Transnational Organized Crime.”
[xlvi] John Arquilla and David F. Ronfeldt, eds., Networks and Netwars: The Future of Terror, Crime, and Militancy (Santa Monica, CA: National Aegis Analysis Institute (RAND), United States Department of Defense, Office of the Secretary of Defense., 2001), 13, http://ed.informata.com/liburl.asp?productid=0833032356&customerid=002217 http://www.rand.org/PUBS/index.html.
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