Born in Orla abreast Grodno (Belorussia) to poverty-stricken parents, Rabbi Aryeh Levin (1885-1971) advised at assorted yeshivot, conspicuously the yeshivot of Slutsk and Volozhin and, afterwards authoritative aliyah in 1905, at the Etz Hayim Yeshiva in Jerusalem. Although he was an outstanding Talmudic academic and accustomed semicha from such rabbanim as R. Chayim Berlin, R. Samuel Salant, and R. Abraham Isaac HaKohen Kook, Rav Levin’s acclaim and the abundant and abundant admire in which he was captivated sprang not from his acquirements but his acceptable works.
Rav Levin was accustomed and admired for his abstract appearance ancestry and adulation of all Jews and was broadly accustomed as the “Father of Prisoners” for his visits to associates of the Jewish underground confined in the Central Bastille of Jerusalem in the Russian Compound during the British Mandate, and as the “Tzaddik of Jerusalem” for his assignment on account of the poor and the sick.
He accustomed Chief Rabbi Abraham Isaac Kook’s arrangement as the official Jewish bastille clergyman alone on action that he accept no pay. The prisoners, best of whom were associates of the Palmach, Haganah, Irgun, or Lechi, were captivated by the rabbi’s amore and artlessness and by the account and account he accorded them. He was additionally acclaimed for his visits to the sick. He alike fabricated common visits to hospitals for lepers, including a hospital in Bethlehem area best of the patients were Arabs.
In this admirable handwritten accord to Rav Kook’s nephew, Rav Refael Kook – anachronous “with the abetment of Hashem Yisborach, the additional day of teshuvah, the 3rd of Tishrei, 1949, from the Holy City of Jerusalem, may the Seat of David be accustomed aural it” – Rav Levin writes:
In account of the atonement Rav HaGaon, acclaimed Ish Chamudot [a admirable person] Refael HaKohen Kook, rav of Tiberias, and to his baby family, may they alive for acceptable and blessing:
I was accustomed with absolution a talmid chacham [i.e., Rav Kook, a kohen] who blesses his nation, Israel, with love. The astute man shall accept the ardent absolution of a hedyot [Rav Levin abundantly refers to himself as “an boilerplate person”] for a gmar chatimah tovah, acceptable life, deshanim v’rannanim beno’am Hashem [a aggregate of verses from Psalms 92:15 and 27:4: “full of sap and still address fruit, afore the address of Hashem”], and may you arete agilely a complete and complete salvation, with the alleviation of Zion and Jerusalem and the acquisition of its accouchement in its midst. With joy at the rebuilding of your Beit Hamikdash, may you arete to do the avodah in the Beit HaBechirah.
In my name and in the name of my family, Rav Aryeh Levin.
Rav Refael Kook (1900-71) fabricated aliyah from Lithuania to Eretz Yisrael in 1926, area he ultimately became rav of Tiberias and arch of the apostolic cloister in Safed.
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Exhibited actuality is a handwritten agenda from one Ezra Ben Yosef Naftali, a captive confined at the abominable Latrun chastening camp, with decidedly allusive printed verses from Isaiah 61:1-2: “To affirm alternative to the captives, and the aperture of the eyes to they who are bound. To affirm the year of Hashem’s pleasure, and the day of avengement to our G-d.”
The alfresco awning depicts a captive breaking chargeless from his acid wire constraints at the alpha of day accompanied by a admirable band from Skolski: “But tomorrow with the ablaze of aurora that sows night on you, I will be free.”
On the 29th of Elul, 1947 – canicule afore the aftermost Rosh Hashanah afore the address of Israel – the captive writes a active and affective message: “Warm commendations for the new year, a year of abandon and alternative and accomplishment of the ability of the eyes of a Jewish kingdom, a year of enactment of the Jewish accompaniment of both abandon of the Jordan River.”
The apple of Latrun was congenital about the charcoal of an old Crusader alcazar on the acme of a acropolis overlooking the all-important Jerusalem road. Following the 1936-39 Arab revolt, British authorities congenital several badge forts alleged “Tegart forts” at assorted locations, including Latrun – called due to its ascendant and cardinal position aloft the Tel Aviv-Jerusalem road. Thousands of Jewish prisoners were interred at a bastille in Latrun, including Yishuv associates who had resisted the British, amid them Moshe Sharett, afterwards Israel’s additional prime minister.
In November 1943, 20 Lechi associates able the bastille and commenced attacks on the British, which played an important role in the British adaptation to abjure from Eretz Yisrael. In a 1948 address to the United Nations Palestine Commission, back there were some 500 prisoners still captivated at Latrun, the Hebrew Commission on National Liberation bidding concern:
“Both Bethlehem and Latrun are far removed from any Hebrew belt and the prisoners are at the complete benevolence of their [British and Arab] guards. There is additionally a abundant accident of the Arabs staging an advance adjoin either Bethlehem or Latrun and in such a case it is to be accepted that the guards will not action any austere attrition and a annihilation of the actually caught prisoners will result.”
Consistent with their accepted action at the end of the Mandate, the British handed Latrun over to the Jordanian Arab Legion, which thereby acquired ascendancy over the Jerusalem alley and acclimated their position to carapace Israeli cartage traveling on the alley below, finer arty a aggressive annoy on the Jews of Jerusalem.
A few canicule afterwards declaring independence, Israel launched “Operation Bin Nun Alef” adjoin Latrun in which it abiding cogent amercement and bootless to dislodge the Jordanians. It is best acceptable that Ezra Ben Yosef Naftali was confined at Latrun at the time of these attacks.
Ultimately, to bypass Latrun and get advice to Jerusalem, Israel congenital the acclaimed “Burma Road” and finer concluded the Arab blockade. Israel launched attacks on Latrun on bristles abstracted occasions, all of which failed, and it remained beneath Jordanian ascendancy until Israel captured it in the Six-Day War.
Prime Abbot Netanyahu afresh promised to admeasure the funds all-important to complete a building at Latrun to account the 1.5 actor Jews who fought the Nazis during WWII.
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Exhibited actuality is a handwritten agenda issued by the Soldiers’ Welfare Committee in Israel and beatific from Tel Mond bastille address an aboriginal allowance from the jail. The prisoner, who does not assurance his name, writes, “To the babysitter of the history of the Tenua Haolamit (‘National Organization’), the blessings of a year of accretion from the confined Jewish fighters, Erev Rosh Hashanah, 1954, Tel Mond.”
When Israel acquired abounding ascendancy of the Jordan Valley south of the Sea of Galilee in May 1948, the Provisional Government – alpha assignment on drafting statutes to begin a Jewish army and a amends admiral – accustomed its aboriginal bastille at the Tel Mond badge station. On August 5, 1957, bristles inmates abundantly able through the roof of the prison, but were all recaptured aural a few days.
Many of the Jewish prisoners, including best acceptable the columnist of our card, were associates of the Underground who had been bedevilled for afraid Arab terrorism. Today, the prison, which is operated by the Israel Bastille Service (IPS) and has a acceptability for asperous treatment, holds both Palestinians (including a appropriate addition for aegis convicts) and Jewish prisoners.
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Shown actuality are two Rosh Hashanah cards mailed from the Cunningham bondage affected at Douglas on the Isle of Man in 1916, at the acme of World War I, to educator, scholar, and Hebraist Abraham Sulzback (1838-1925).
Born in Hamburg, Dr. Sulzback advised rabbinics while additionally accessory university, area he advised history and philology. From 1862 to 1912, he accomplished German, history, geography, and Talmudic capacity at the aerial academy accustomed by Rav Samson Raphael Hirsch in Frankfurt. He authored a abundant cardinal of awful admired Jewish works, including a assignment on Kohelet, a adaptation of the Book of Esther, and works on Jewish belief and Jewish poetry. He additionally edited assorted siddurim.
Douglas, the basic and better boondocks of the Isle of Man, is amid at the aperture of the River Douglas, and Cunningham’s Affected at Douglas was one of the ancient anniversary camps on the British Isles, accepting been accustomed in 1904. The Isle of Man was acclimated by the British government for the bondage of adversary aliens during both World War I and World War II.
The Douglas Affected was disconnected into three abstracted camps: (1) the accustomed camp, about acutely cramped; (2) a “privileged” affected for those who could allow to pay for beneath awkward apartment and who were acceptable to acquirement items from alfresco and to accelerate items out from the camp; and (3) a “Jewish camp,” from which our Rosh Hashanah cards were absolutely mailed. Fascinatingly, there were audible adequate accouterment and dining arrange fabricated for the Jewish internees, who were accustomed chargeless use of accessories to bless Jewish holidays.
In September 1914, the affected was called by the British government as the aboriginal POW affected on the Isle of Man; its absolute role as a anniversary affected for adolescent men fabricated its about-face a almost accessible matter, and the aboriginal 200 internees were confined there on September 22, 1914. Lieutenant-Colonel H.W. Madoc, who had ample acquaintance with agnate camps in South Africa, was appointed commandant.
Internees at Douglas were about not adversary combatants but, rather, civilians bedfast because they were citizen foreigners of adversary nationality; nonetheless, they were captivated beneath aggressive law and were not acceptable out unless accompanied by an armed guard. As the war progressed and xenophobic animosity agitated – decidedly afterwards a German U-boat sank the Lusitania in September 1915 – accretion numbers of internees appropriate accommodation.
A anarchism acquired by poor altitude at the camp, which resulted in six inmates actuality killed, led to a abundant beyond ability actuality accustomed and again connected at Knockaloe, abreast Peel, but Cunningham’s Affected at Douglas was retained and connected to abode some 3,000 prisoners during the war. The Affected independent an all-embracing mix of contempo arrivals to Britain, principally from Germany, including a abundant cardinal of Jews who had fled the European war area for Britain.
It additionally included abounding others who had lived in Britain best of their lives, some of whom had ancestors associates angry and dying in the British army. Back American admiral visited Cunningham’s Affected in 1916, it recorded 2,744 internees, of whom 1,968 were German and an alien cardinal of whom were Jewish.
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