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Exhibited actuality is a 1941 Rosh Hashanah official apprehension from Chaim Rumkowski to the Jews of the Łódź Ghetto (or “Litzmannstadt,” a German name he is accustomed with giving to it) apropos a appropriate Rosh Hashanah amusement for Jewish children:


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MORDECHAI CHAIM RUMKOWSKILitzmannstadt, Erev Rosh Hashana 1941

YIVO has in its athenaeum an anthology presented to Rumkowski on that actual Rosh Hashanah – addressed to “Adonenu Hanasi” (“our master, the leader”) and complete the signatures of 14,587 schoolchildren and 715 agents from schools in the Łódź Ghetto.

That Rosh Hashanah, he was royally borne to the ghetto abbey in his accepted administrative drillmaster cutting his adorned cloak, adorned argent collar, and a crown-like eight-pointed hat in dejected and white.

Sadly, and ironically, the man who gave aliment and amoroso to the Jewish accouchement of Łódź Ghetto is the aforementioned man who would afterwards abet with the Nazis in alignment their extermination.

Chaim Mordechai Rumkowski (1877-1944), built-in to Jewish parents in a shtetl abreast Vilna and accomplished in a acceptable cheder, was fatigued to Łódź in the aboriginal 1900s by its booming automated economy, breadth he fabricated and absent fortunes as a manufacturer. A childless widower, he became an allowance agent, became foolishly complex in bounded Jewish affairs, including Zionist politics, and founded and directed a Jewish abode from 1925-39.

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On October 13, 1939, a few months afore the Nazis closed the Łódź Ghetto and about confined 164,000 people, the Nazis appointed Rumkowski to serve as arch of the Jewish Board of Elders in the Łódź Ghetto, in which accommodation he adapted the ghetto into an automated abject accomplishment war aliment for the German Wehrmacht in the unshakable, but misguided, acceptance that abundance was the key to Jewish adaptation through the Shoah.

Often employing agitated measures adjoin his own people, he adapted the ghetto into a “city of labor” and the best able branch of the German war apparatus in active Europe. Beneath his control, the ghetto became about a bondservant action camp, with abounding Jewish workers actually collapsing, and some dying, from burnout and overwork. Rumkowski boasted, “My adage is to be consistently at atomic 10 annual advanced of every German demand.”

His adherence was such that he conducted his own “selections” to abolish “unproductive” Jews, including the old, the sick, and bags of accouchement beneath the age of 10; planned the acumen for several deportations to the Chelmno afterlife camp; and alone called the Jews to be abandoned (he claimed that he tried, but failed, to altercate the Nazis to abate the cardinal of ordered deportees). In his abominable and abhorrent speech, “Give Me Your Children,” he apprenticed the Jews not to abide deporting 20,000 of their accouchement to be exterminated.

Rumkowski accepted actual successful. In fact, Governor Arthur Greiser, a Nazi administrator primarily amenable for acclimation the Holocaust in Poland, testified at his 1946 balloon that the Łódź Ghetto was one of Germany’s better automated operations.

The Nazis asleep the ghetto in 1944; all actual prisoners were beatific to afterlife camps in the deathwatch of Germany’s aggressive defeats on the Eastern Front; and, in August 1944, Rumkowski and his ancestors abutting the aftermost carriage to Auschwitz. By best accounts, he was murdered by Jewish Sonderkommando inmates from Łódź who exhausted him to afterlife to avenge his role in the Holocaust; abreast historians, however, claiming that account.

Rumkowski charcoal a arguable amount in the history of the Holocaust and continues to present a arduous botheration for moralists and ethicists who still agitation how he should be beheld through the lens of history. Although he was broadly beheld by the Jews as a hated assistant and traitor, some abreast historians accept reassessed this acumen accustomed his active purpose: to ensure the adaptation of as abounding Jews as he could accustomed the alarming altitude beneath which he was affected to alive and operate.

Rumkowski supporters altercate that he had no best but to assignment with the Nazis who, in an instant, could decree the defalcation of the complete Łódź Ghetto. As Rumkowski himself put it, “I charge cut off limbs in adjustment to save the anatomy itself.” Thus, for example, he dedicated his abatement of accouchement beneath the age of 10 by advancement that he had thereby adored Jewish accouchement aloft that age who, absent his difficult but all-important action, would accept been murdered forth with their adolescent ancestors by the Nazis.

Through his industrialization of the ghetto and advance of its efficiency, Rumkowski approved to accomplish “his Jews” basal to their Nazi taskmasters and thereby save them. By April 1940, it became axiomatic that he had accomplished some admeasurement of success in this adventure back the Nazis accepted his address for added aliment for the ghetto community. In fact, he succeeded in facilitating the adaptation of the Łódź Ghetto – with its 70,000 Jews – until August 1944, two years best than the Warsaw Ghetto survived and added alone in continuance to Theresienstadt.

Although alone 877 Jews survived the final defalcation of the Łódź Ghetto, which was the aftermost ghetto in Central Europe to be exterminated, there were added survivors of the Łódź Ghetto than any added Polish ghetto, and abounding advisers acclaim Rumkowski for their survival. With the Russians alone 70 afar abroad back the Nazis absitively to cash the ghetto, he about adored abounding tens of bags more.

Rumkowski set up a borough government; created jobs for ghetto residents, which gave them a faculty of purpose; and accustomed amusing abundance programs and institutions that provided adjustment and a faculty of association so acute to the semblance, if not the fantasy, of a allusive and ordered action beneath the barbaric Nazi rule. He organized a blaze department; bankrupt the ghetto streets; and accustomed abundance and bloom systems and administered seven hospitals, seven pharmacies, and bristles clinics employing hundreds of doctors and nurses.

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Also different to the Łódź Ghetto and due absolutely to Rumkowski, the educational and cultural needs of the Jews were addressed through his enactment of 47 schools, which accomplished some two-thirds of the ghetto’s school-age children, and he was accepted to allow the accouchement with added armament and sweets, decidedly for the Jewish holidays (see exhibit).

He additionally created and maintained a Culture House breadth plays and agreeable performances were held, and he persisted in acting in what he perceived to be the best interests of the Jews admitting actuality himself consistently baffled and abused by his Nazi overlords.

Exhibited actuality is a bare bound black assignment canyon for a Jewish artisan issued by Rumkowski and his Board of Elders:

IDENTITY CARDNumber ________ 

Resident ___________ Cardinal ____is The Board of Jewish Elders at Litzmannstadt

Department ____________________ Employed.

He is acceptable to canyon the streets aural the streets in the Jewish residential breadth afterwards the alarm and may not be acclimated for any added work.

CH. RUMKOWSKIThe Elders of Litzmannstadt

Litzmannstadt – Ghetto ______ 1940__.

But Rumkowski was additionally a adamant monster. His rule, clashing that of the leaders of added ghettos, was apparent by corruption of his own bodies and the concrete defalcation of political opponents, as he abandoned bodies he alone awful to the afterlife camps. For example, afterwards selecting 31 accessible abstracts to serve as Elders of the Ghetto Council, he denounced 20 of them to the Nazis because they bootless to accede his policies, arch to their execution; anon after, the actual 11 “disappeared.” A new, added adjustable board was after appointed, but the Nazis accustomed Rumkowski to serve as the sole ascendancy in managing and acclimation centralized action in the ghetto.

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The power-hungry Rumkowski maintained ascendancy through the barbarous use of a 1,200-strong Jewish ghetto badge force and aristocratic clandestine guard, and his administration was apparent by complete order, confiscation of Jewish acreage and assets, and apprenticed labor. Rumkowski banned all accessible expressions of bone and, application his Jewish police, berserk bankrupt up demonstrations, alike occasionally calling in the Nazis to breach up rallies and annihilate protesters.

Those who somehow survived were punished by actuality barred from earning a living, which about accursed them and their families to afterlife by starvation. Thus, by aboriginal 1941, there were no added protests adjoin Rumkowski.

Meanwhile, he acclimated his position to accroach acreage and businesses that were still actuality run in the ghetto from their applicable Jewish owners while advancement his own appropriate shops for his own claimed needs and application himself and his Board of Elders adequate aliment armament and a aerial lifestyle.

To abash smugglers from bringing appurtenances into the ghetto and to allegedly “prevent the destabilization of the prices of basal commodities,” Rumkowski assured that these appurtenances could not be paid for with approved bill by introducing the use of an bogus bill address his image, which was nicknamed “Rumkies” by ghetto residents. The self-styled Jewish Messiah additionally put his face on ghetto postage stamps (see exhibit) and he accepted himself the ascendancy to conduct bells ceremonies in which he unilaterally absitively to adapt the ketubah, which decidedly affronted Orthodox Jews in the ghetto.

In archetypal egoistic style, his angel additionally appeared in all ghetto advertising posters, artwork, and publications, which astral his every action and accent – and, ironically, accustomed his astronomic adulation of the actual accouchement that he would afterwards accelerate to their deaths – all of which led to his earning the cheeky and acerb ghetto appellation “King Chaim.” Afterwards affair him during a abrupt appointment to the Warsaw Ghetto, Emmanuel Ringelblum, the acclaimed Warsaw Ghetto historian, characterized him as “an abnormally aggressive and rather bonkers man who tells alpine acceptance of the Łódź Ghetto and considers himself G-d’s Anointed.”

As one analyst abundantly said: “Rumkowski articular so carefully with his Nazi masters that the administrator became their Jewish analogue – a Machiavellian absolutist angled on amid ‘useless eaters’ from advantageous workers, all the while stoking his own band of personality.”

The antecedent of the Rumkowski altercation ultimately, therefore, has little to do with his acceptance that, to survive, the Jews of the Łódź Ghetto should assignment (under duress) for the Nazis. It is his history of appetent power, accession it, and misusing it.

Many added Jewish ghetto leaders beneath bondage assisted the Nazi war effort, but back Adam Czerniakow (head of the Jewish Board for the Warsaw Ghetto), for example, abstruse that the Nazis were not “resettling” Jewish deportees but murdering them, he took his own action rather than abide allied with the Nazis. Rumkowski, on the added hand, connected to not alone force the Jews of the Łódź Ghetto to abide alive for the Nazis, but additionally assisted in advisedly sending them to their deaths, including advancement the Jews to abet in the displacement of 20,000 accouchement to Chelmno.

Some advisers altercate that Czerniakow’s suicide, admitting principled, did not save the action of a distinct Warsaw Ghetto Jew, while Rumkowski did save hundreds of Jews, admitting at a abominable cost. As historian Yechiel Yishayahu Trunk writes in his well-respected abstraction of the Łódź Ghetto (1962), “it would be too simple if we saw in Rumkowski artlessly a absolutist blueblood or addition who approved to save himself at the amount of tens of bags whom he had beatific to their deaths.”

However, Rumkowski never accepted the accurate attributes of the Final Solution and that annihilation would anytime avert the Nazis from accomplishing their prime directive: to annihilation every aftermost Jew. Thus, on balance, his almanac of aggravating to access the allowance of Jewish adaptation in the ghetto, alike if done with absolutely acceptable intentions – which, accustomed his ache for ability apparent by accidental cruelty, is awful absurd – is overshadowed by his abatement of the Nazis and handing over around the complete ghetto citizenry to Nazi afterlife camps.

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